UB-TAH received the support in this project from Venita Taveapont, Ute Tribe Education Department, Adam Martinez, Uintah River High, Gloria Thompson, Union High School, Mariah Cuch, Ute Tribe Newspaper, and Marilyn Hetzel, former Ute Education Department Director.  We appreciate the support Laura Ahrnsbrak, Discovery Elementary, Vernal, Utah who presented the Dual Timeline proposal.
Sources: Utah History To Go and other Resources





Paleoindian Before 1500's Story of the Creation: The Ute Creator is Senawahu, who made land for the use of the Indians. Ute Creation Story
Ute Land Area was about 225,000 sq. miles
(3-D Map A)
(3-D Map B)
Ute Prehistory
(Utah Office of Indian Affairs)
Utah Natives Picture Collection
Ute Collection of Resources and Pictures
Utah Places with Indian names

USOE Indian Education Lesson Plans
Archaic Indian  
Anazasi and Freemont Before 1500's Ute's a Long Time Ago (Lesson Plan).
Archeological Map of the Southwest
1,300 Ute, Paiute, Shoshoni, Navajo Goshute  
  1492 Columbus encountered the Taino people in the Caribbean Island.  Chief Guacanagari, welcomed Columbus
    1534 Alvaro Nuņez Caveza de Vaca Travel thought the Southwest. He and three more man where looking for Mexico.  One of them was an African slave called Estebanico.  These events took place 300 miles South of Ute Country (Kapote and Muache Utes). (Map)
    1538 Fray Juan Marcos de Niza and Estebanico with an small force, returned to the Southwest, searching for the Seven cities of Cibola.
    1539-1543 Francisco Vazquez de Coronado leads and expedition of more than 1,300 man, 4 Franciscan monks and several slaves in search of the Seven Cities of Cibola. These events took place 90 miles South of Ute Country (Kapote and Muache Utes). (Map)
    1540 Lopez de Cardenas, an officer of Coronado, reach the Colorado River from the rim of Grand Canyon. These events took place 170 miles South of Ute and Paiute Country (Pahvant Utes).
    1600-1640 First contact with Spaniards (Introduction to the Horse)
Early Cartography of the Southwest
    1604 An Exploratory expedition sent by Juan de Oņate met an Indian (Southern Paiute?)
    1604 The City of Santa Fe, New Mexico is founded by Pedro de Peralta
1607 Jamestown is founded in Virginia
Mapping of Colonial Americas
1607 Between 1607 and 1776, at least 175 treaties were signed between the British Empire and the Colonies with American Indian Tribes.
Pocahontas, a Powhatan Princess, meets and helps Jamestown
1620 The Mayflower Compact 1608 Pocahontas, a Powhatan Princess, meets and helps Jamestown (Eastern Tribes)
1621 Plymouth is founded in Massachusetts William Bradford was one of the leaders of the pilgrims who established Plymouth Colony. 1621 Squanto, a Patuxet Indian, helps Plymouth town (Eastern Tribes)
    1638 First recorded conflict between the Spaniards and the Utes. 80 "Utacas" were capture and taken to Santa Fe, New Mexico.
    1649, Dec. 30 First Treaty with the Utes, "One of Peace and Amity"
    1680 The Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico obligated the Spaniards to abandon Santa Fe.  It is said that Ute participated in the Pueblo Revolt. (3-D: Map of Pueblo, Pueblo/North, Pueblo/Central, Pueblo/South)
    1700 Achieved ascendancy among the other tribes; great powers horsemen (Juan Armando Neil said they were: "the bravest Indians that he had encountered in New Spain."
    1749 Leaders of three Ute groups, Don Thomas of the "Utas, Barrignton of the "Chaugaguas" ad Chicito of the "Moaches" agree on "peace" (alliance) with the Spaniards
    1765 The Old Spanish Trail Juan Maria de Rivera explored the area from Santa Fe to the Gunnison River in Colorado. His purpose was to find a trail to reach California. The first to complete the circuit from Santa Fe to Los Angeles was Mexican trader Antonio Armijo in the winter of 1829-30. (Trail Map) (Trail Map 2)
1776 Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776
Fathers Silvestre Velez de Escalante and Francisco Atanasio Dominguez seek a new route from New Mexico to California and explore Utah. Trails Map
Dominguez and Escalante Journal/Maps Collection
1776 Escalante's Expedition through the basin. The Fathers used two Ute guides that they named Silvestre and Joaquin. (More Links)
Dominguez and Escalante Journal/Maps Collection
    1786 Spanish Governor Juan Bautista de Anza arranged a a peace between the Comanche leader Ecueracapa and the Ute leaders Mora and Pinto.
1787 Constitution of the United States, May 14, 1787 1787 Between 1787 and 1868, 371 treaties were signed between the U.S. and American Indian Tribes.
    1804-1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition (Satellite Maps)
Westward Expansion of U.S. - Routes (Map from1791 to 1912)
Westward Expansion of U.S. - Regions (Map of Regions)
    1806 Captain Zebulon Pike was sent to explore the Colorado Rockies. While camped in San Luis Valley, he and his men were arrested by Spanish soldiers and put in jail.
1821 Mexico wins independence from Spain and claims Utah.    
    1822 Lechat, a Ute leader came to Santa Fe, New Mexico to propose trade
    1823 Johnson vs. McIntosh Supreme Court Decision:  This case tested the validity of land sold by tribal chiefs to private persons in 1773 and 1775.  The court decided that Indian Tribes had no power to grant lands to anyone other than the federal government. The federal government, in turn, held title to the all land based upon the "doctrine of discovery."
    1824-1844 Trappers seeks fur and trade in Ute Lands. Peter Skene Ogden from the Hudson's Bay Company, Jedediah Smith and Thomas Fizpatrick from the Rocky Mountain Fur Company (owned by William Ashley) and Independent trappers, such as Etienne Provost and Robidoux brothers who were traveling from Taos Pueblo.

General William H. Ashley sends trappers to northern Utah and Jim Bridger discovers the Great Salt Lake.

1824 Ashley's expedition of the Uintah Basin
The Indian Office is created under the Department of War.  The office later becomes the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1849.
1825 Jedediah Smith leads the first overland expedition to California.    
    1826-1827 Opening of the Old Spanish Trail  (Trails Map) Ute lands of the Kapotas, Weeminuche, Tumpanawach, and Pah Vant (Map)
1829 The Old Spanish Trail which enters Utah about fifteen miles east of Monticello, and continues roughly northwesterly to about the town of Green River, crosses the Colorado River just northwest of Moab and eventually crosses desert and wash region until it reaches the Green River.    
1830 On April 6 Joseph Smith organizes the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Fayette, New York. 1830-1848 Ute levied "tax" on the Spanish Traders.  Ute traded animal pelts of beaver and otter, and tanned hides of elk, deer, mountain sheep, and buffalo for weapons, ammunition, blankets, utensils, and trinkets.
    1830 Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen on the Removal Act, April 9, 1830. (Eastern Tribes)
David Crockett, a Tennessee legislator and U.S. congressman also openly opposed to the Indian Removal. (read pp. 143-144.)
Indian Removal Act, President Andrew Jackson (Eastern Tribes)
1832 Antoine Robidoux builds a trading post in the Uintah Basin. 1831 Antoinne Robidoux opened a trading post in the Northern end of the Basin (More Links)
    1831 Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia Decision: the State of Georgia passed and enacted policies that only limited the Cherokee Tribal sovereignty but also were unconstitutional in their view. The court proclaimed that that Indian were neither US citizens, nor independent nations, but rather were "domestic nations" whose relationship to the US "resembles that of a ward to his guardian."
    1832 Worcester vs Georgia Court Decision: Samuel Austin Worcester, a religious missionary from Vermont who was working with Cherokee natives sued the State of Georgia which had arrested him, claiming that the State had no authority over him within the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation.  The court ruled in favor of Worcester, stating that state laws did not extend in Indian Country.  Indian tribes were under the protection of the federal government.
    1833 Fort Kit Carson established near the present day Ouray Community
1836 William Craig, Philip Thompson, and Previtt Sinclair built a fort at Brown's Hole and after news of the fall of the Alamo and the death of Davy Crockett reached the mountains, the owners renamed it Fort Davy Crockett. However, the mountain men usually referred to the place as "Fort Misery" because of the deplorable conditions.    
    1837 Fort Uncomphagre established at confluence of Gunnison and Uncomphagre rivers, Northwestern Colorado. Also Fort Robidoux is established.
    1838 The Cherokee "Trail of Tears"
1839 Joseph Smith established Navoo in area called Commerce, Illinois. 1840's The Oregon Trail (2,170 miles long) is started to be used. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman were the first Euroamericans to cross the Oregon Trail in covered wagon during 1836. The "Great Migration" started in 1843. Over the next 25 years, more than a half of million of people went West on the Trail (Trail Map)
1841 Capt. John Bartleson leads first wagon train of settlers across Utah to California.    
1843 John C. Fremont and Kit Carson explore the Great Basin. 1843 Lieutenant John Charles Freemont traveled trough Utah Ute lands, leading the first scientific exploration of the area
1844 Miles Goodyear builds Fort Buenaventura. 1844 Fort Robidoux is burned by Ute Indians
1846 543 men enlist in the Mormon Battalion, to fight for the United States in the Mexican War, and eventually march the longest military march in history of 2000 miles.
The Donner-Reed
party pursued a route from Henefer through Emigration Canyon where they met with extreme hardship both there and in the Salt Lake Desert. This substantial loss in time caused them to become snowbound in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and resulted in only forty-seven of the original eight-seven's arrival at Sutter's Fort
1847 James Bridger meets the Mormon pioneers and discusses the merits of settling in the Salt Lake Valley, draws a map on the ground depicting the region with great accuracy, and conveys to Brigham Young his misgivings regarding the agricultural productivity of the Salt Lake area

First party of Mormon pioneers arrive in the Salt Lake Valley. (Immigration Map)
3-D Map Collection:
Map 1: Immigration Canyon-Monument "This is the Place"
Map 2: Immigration Canyon -Monument "This is the Place"
Map 3: Salt Lake City in 1847 (Regions)
Map 4: American Indians in Utah in 1847

Pioneers Primary Sources/Heritage Gateway

Utah History Picture Collection

1847 By the time the Mormons arrived to Utah, there were different American Indian Tribes living in Utah territory, the Shoshone in Northern Utah, the Goshute in Eastern Utah, the Cumumba Utes, in what is now Ogden, The Timpanogo Utes in the Provo area, The Sanpit Utes in Central Utah, the Pahvant Utes in Southern Utah, the Uinta Utes in the Uintas, the Seberecheth Utes in Moab area, Weeminuche Utes in Southwestern Utah and the Paiutes in southeastern Utah. More links: UB-TAH Ute History
Map: (3-D Map of Utah American Indians in 1846)
Utah Places with Indian names
1847 On January 27 the Mormon Battalion, completed its march across the Southwest, arriving in San Luis Rey, California. (Map of the Mormon Battalion March)
The primary establishment of settlements in Utah marked the founding of the north-south line of settlements from Cache Valley on the Idaho border, along the Wasatch Front and Wasatch Plateau, down to Utah's Dixie on the Arizona border
1848 U.S. wins Mexican War and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is signed which cedes Utah to the United States.
On January 24 nine members of the discharged Mormon Battalion were at Sutter's Mill in California when gold was discovered
In order to provide a satisfactory circulating medium for the early settlers of Utah, Brigham Young and his associates in the LDS Church established a church mint and circulated paper money backed by the treasury and officials of the LDS Church
1848 The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the Mexican War and enlarges the U.S. territory to include Ute Lands. (More Links)

Constitutional convention proposes the State of Deseret which encompasses the entire Great Basin.
U.S. Senate passes a bill providing for the organization of Utah Territory (rejecting the name Deseret and shrinking its borders).
University of Deseret (later University of Utah) is chartered). The Deseret News starts in June.

1849 March 1, 1849: First confrontation between the Ute and the Pioneers. "Battle Creek" in Pleasant Grove.

Agent Calhoun negotiates a treaty with the Ute people at Abiqui New Mexico

Ute and Pioneer Confrontations, 1849-1853
1849 Mormon pioneers built "Fort Utah" on a Utah Valley stream that had generally been known as the Timpanogos.
First post office established in Salt Lake City
The Mormon Church initiated the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company (PEF) primarily to help Mormon refugees from Nauvoo, Illinois, migrate to Utah. It also became a major instrument for gathering Latter-day Saint converts to Utah from abroad, assisting some 26,000 immigrants between 1852 and 1887
1849 Captain Howard Stansbury of the U.S. Topographical Engineers was sent to begin a survey for a military post on the edge of the desert.

Formerly the Indian Office becomes the Bureau of Indian Affairs which is transferred from the War Department to the department of Interior
1850 11,380 settlers called the newly created Utah Territory their home
Map: U.S. Territories/Utah Territory
1850 Mormon militia attacks a Ute group near Fort Utah. They laid seige to s a group of about seventy people lead by Big Elk and Ope-Carry. Ute and Pioneer Confrontation in Fort Utah on February 1850
1851 On February 3, Brigham Young took the oath of office, becoming the first Governor of the Utah Territory
Map: Utah Territory in 1851
1851 The Utah territorial Indian Agency was established by Congress.
1852 LDS Church authorities publicly acknowledge the doctrine of plural marriage.    
1853 Captain John Gunnison and a surveying party traveled part of the Old Spanish Trail before turning north along the Sevier River
In October, Indians kill Gunnison and a number of others.
1853 LDS Church begins the construction of the Salt Lake Temple.
The Walker War with the Ute Indians begins over slavery among the Indians.
1853-1854 Wakara (Walker) leads the Utah Utes in a series of raids on Mormon settlements, known as the Walker War
Walkara War 1 and Walkara War 2
1854 Grasshopper plagues endanger crops. 1854 Peace was arranged by Brigham Young and Wakara at Chicken Creek in May 1854. Wakara died in January 1855
    1855 Kapota and Moache were force to sign peace treaties (never ratified)
1856-1860 On June 9 the first handcart company left Iowa City, Iowa, followed by two handcart companies later that year the James G. Willie and Edward Martin Handcart Companies. Due to an early winter more than 200 people died along the trail 1856 Indian Agent Gallard Hurt established Indian farms at the Corn Creek, Tewlve Mile Creek, and Spanish Fork. (More Links)
1857-1861 Brigham Young is removed as governor by President James Buchanan who sends a 2,500-man military force to accompany the new governor Alfred Cumming to the territory, starting the Utah War.
Map: Mormon Colonization by 1857
1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre
1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre
On September 11 the Mountain Meadow massacre took place. Arkansas immigrant on their way to California were killed in Iron County, Utah
1858 Federal Troops arrive in Utah to resolve rising tensions between Mormons and the United States government. Indian Agent Jacob Forney accompanies the troops.
1857-1858 Brigham Young is removed as governor by President James Buchanan who sends a 2,500-man military force to accompany the new governor Alfred Cumming to the territory, starting the Utah War. In May the citizens living north of Utah County abandoned their homes and moved south, leaving only a few men in each town. On June 26 Johnston's army arrives in the valley and eventually started Camp Floyd around forty south of the city 1859 Gold is discovered in Pikes Peak area
1860 On April 7 the first Pony Express rider arrived in Salt Lake City having left Sacramento, California on the evening of April 3.  On April 9 the first Pony Express rider from the east arrived in Salt Lake City, having left St. Joseph, Missouri on the evening of April 3 1860's Major John Wesley Powell began a survey of Ute lands which would becom part of the U.S. Geological Survey.
1861 Brigham Young sent a survey party to the Uinta Basin to see if it could support a Mormon settlement. According to a report, it 'was entirely unsuitable for farming purposes"...and it was..."one vast contiguity of waste and measurable valueless, excepting for nomadic purposes...hunting ground for Indians."    
1861 Telegraph joins in Tooele County. 1861 Brigham Young sent a survey party to the Uinta Basin to see if it could support a Mormon settlement. According to a report, it 'was entirely unsuitable for farming purposes"...and it was..."one vast contiguity of waste and measurable valueless, excepting for nomadic purposes...hunting ground for Indians."
1861 Third movement for Statehood begins in December 1861-1862
Map: Utah Territory 1861
1861 President Lincoln sets Uintah Valley aside as a Ute Reservation  (Satellite Map)
    1863 Tumpanawach, Pah-vant, Parianuche, and Yamparika Utes meet in central Utah, Black Hawk leads series of raids known as the Black Hawk Wars of Utah.
1863 Discovery of silver and lead in Bingham Canyon. 1863 John Nicolay, secretary to President Lincoln was sent west to head a commission to deal with the Utes.  One tribe got its territory described in the process.
1863 On January 29 Colonel Patrick E. Connor, with about 200 troops, defeated a band of Shoshone Indians on the Bear River (now known as the Bear River Massacre). 1863 The Taviwach leaders signed a treaty relinquishing the Colorado territory and with its mineral rights (ratified March 25, 1864).  This followed skirmishes between the Taviwach band and intruding prospectors in the Middle Park area.
1864 Isabella and Julius Brooks and their children were the first Jewish family to settle in pioneer Utah 1864 Feb. 1 Indian commissioners ordered to collect and remove Indians.
1864-1867 The Salt Lake Mormon Tabernacle was built. 1864 May 5 Congress ratifies an executive order which set aside the Uintah Valley Reservation as proposed (1861).
    1864 Mormons ask for the removal of the Utes to the Sanpete and Uintah Valley.
    1864 At Sand Creek on November 29, 1864, John Chivington led the Colorado Volunteers in a dawn attack on Black Kettle and his band, who had been told they would be safe on this desolate reservation. Two hundred Cheyenne men, women and children were slaughtered, and their corpses often grotesquely mutilated. Native's report. (3-D:Map of the Sand Creek Massacre)
    1865 Treaty between U.S. and the Ute Tribes in Utah in June 8, 1865
Treaty between U.S. and the "Weber Ute Indians in October, 1865
1865 Ute Black Hawk War last major Indian conflict in Utah. 1865-1868 Black Hawk War.
Black Hawk 1
and Black Hawk 2
    1866 Treaty between U.S. and the Uintah and Yampa Utes in August 29, 1866
Circleville residents arrest and kill all the adult Utes at a Ute camp near Circleville.
    1867 Most of Uintah Utes were removed to Uintah Valley.
    1868, Mar 2 A treaty was signed by the Uncompahgre.
1868 Zions Mercantile Cooperative Institution formed as first United States department store
Map: Utah Territory in 1868
1868 Whiterocks Agency was established on the Uintah Reservation.  Also a treaty established two other agencies, the Colorado Ute People had one at Whiteriver, and another at Rio de Los Pinos (ratified July 25, 1868).
1869 Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads meet on May 10 at Promontory. More links...
First non-Mormon church building in Utah (Church of the Good Samaritan) in Corinne is constructed.
John Wesley Powell explores the Colorado River.
1868 Chief Black Kettle and a Southern Cheyenne peaceful village at Washita was attacked by the 7th U.S. Cavalry, under Lt. Col. George A. Custer, just before dawn on November 27, 1868 during the era of the Plains and Indian Wars. Custer's Report, Native's Report (3:D Map of the Washita)
1870 Utah Territory enfranchises women 1870 Chief Black Hawk died.
1871 Dedication of First Catholic Church in Utah (St. Mary Madeleine).
John Wesley Powell names a butte, valley, and Green River crossing for Gunnison when he passes through the region.
1871-1875 The Photographs of John Hillers, who accompanied Powell during 1871-75 are important primary sources of the area at that time
1872 Kanab serves as John Wesley Powell's field headquarters during his second expedition, which yielded several important maps and photographs of the Colorado Plateau 1872 The Secretary of the Interior convinces Congress to draw up a new treaty that had no discussion with Indians before hand.  The Indians defeated it.

Poland Act passed in Congress making it legal to prosecute Mormon for practicing polygamy.

1873 The Brunot Agreement deprives the Ute people of San Juan Mountain land and gold deposits (ratified April 29, 1894).
    1873 U.S. government officials appoint Ouray as Head Chief of the Utes.

Holy Cross Sisters open Holy Cross Hospital their first hospital in the U. S.

1876 On June 25, 1876, federal troops led by Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and a band of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians confronted in a battle known as Battle at the Little Bighorn River, Montana. The U.S. government had ordered the northern Plains tribes to return to designated reservations and had sent troops under Gen. Alfred H. Terry to enforce the order. Terry hoped to surround an Indian encampment at the mouth of the Little Bighorn, but a party of some 200 soldiers led by Custer launched an early attack and was slaughtered. Government troops subsequently flooded into the area and forced the Indians to surrender. (3-D Map, The Battle of Little Big Horn)
    1877 The 1877 flight of the Nez Perce from their homelands while pursued by U.S. Army Generals Howard, Sturgis and Miles, is one of the most fascinating and amazing events in Western U.S. History. Finally, Chief Joseph's camp was captured in the Battle of Bear Paw, a few miles South of Canada. Chief Joseph's Speeches. (3-D Maps: Nez Perce's Trail, The Battle of Bear Paw)
    1878 Meeker became agent at Whiteriver agency.
1879 A group of Mormon pioneers began the now-famous Hole-in-the Rock Expedition through the San Juan region of southeastern Utah, which was one of the most isolated regions of the United States 1879 Agent Nathan Meeker is killed by Yamparika Utes.

Carlisle Indian School: The first off-reservation military-type boarding school for Indians was established in Pennsylvania by Richard Henry Pratt.
1879 First telephone service established in Ogden. 1879 As a result of the Meeker incident, officials force the Colorado Utes to sign an agreement which removes the Yamparika and Taviwach Utes to Utah (ratified June 15, 1880).
    1880, Mar 6 Treaty signed by the Indians.
    1880, June 15 Treaty signed by congress for Indian removal from Colorado.
    1880, Aug 24 Death of Ouray.
    1880-1891 Ghost Dance Movement
    1881 Yamparika Utes are moved to the Uintah Reservation in Utah.
1882 Edmunds Act passed by Congress making it unlawful to cohabitate.
Mormon women opened the Deseret Hospital, which was almost entirely managed and staffed by female directors and doctors. Additionally, LDS Relief Society women became involved in a number of enterprises designed to help care for the state's poor through donations of money, food, and materials, and managed business operations such as silk raising and grain storage
1882 Act of January 5, 1882--Uncompahgre Reservation
    1885 Miners found Gilsonite--significance--only deposit in U.S.
    1886 Uintah and Ouray agencies consolidate.
    1887 President Cleveland establishes the Fort Duchesne Military reservation near the Agency. (More Links)
1887 The Edmunds-Tucker Act is passed by Congress. 1887 Congress passes the Dawes Act, or the Allotment Act.
Allotment Act or Dawes Act, February 8, 1887 (pdf.)
(More Links)
1887 Congress denies women in Utah right to vote 1887 Act provides for surveys and allotments on the reservations.
1890 LDS Church President Wilford Woodruff issues the Manifesto ending church-sanctioned polygamy.
Half of Salt Lake City's 45,000 residents are non-Mormons as the flood of twenty million immigrants coming to the United States--in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries--find its way to Utah
1890 Ouray Boarding School opens at Randlett, then called Leland. (Boarding School Pictures)
1891 B'Nai Israel Temple dedicated in Salt Lake City.    
1896 Constitution of the State of Utah (May 8, 1895)
Utah becomes the 45th state on January 4.
Heber M. Wells is inaugurated as the first governor.
With statehood, Utah women regain the right to vote
1897 Martha Hughes Cannon is elected the first woman State Senator in United States 1897 A small group of Uncompahgre, Uintah, and Whiteriver (Yamparika) Utes received Allotments.
    1897 Posse attacks Utes camped on the Snake River in Colorado
    1898 Uintah and Whiteriver Utes sell land to the Uncompahgre Utes.
    1898 Allotments made on the Uintah Reservation as Mormon settlers rush into area. (More Links)
    1902 Congressional hearings on Uintah reservation allotments.
    1905 President Theodore Roosevelt withdrew 1,100,000 acres from the Utes to create the Uinta National Forest Reserve. (Opening of Uintah reservation, 1905 Map)
Opening of the Uintah Reservation to Homestead Claims 1

Opening of the Uintah Reservation to Homestead Claims 2

Open pit copper mining starts in Bingham Canyon.

1909 Discovery of Rainbow Bridge. 1909 By right of "Eminent Domain" the Strawberry Valley Reclamation Project appropriate 56,000 acres of land.
1911 Strawberry Reservoir is completed.
The Utah State Legislature designated the sego lily as the state flower
1914 Auto racing begins on the Bonneville Salts Flats near the Great Salt Lake.    
1915 State Capitol is completed.
Joe Hill executed, Utah's first exercise in capital punishment
Dinosaur National Monument founded
1919 Zion National Park is created.
First Salt Lake Chapter of the NAACP founded.


1918 Native American Church - This Indian church was organized in Oklahoma to combine an ancient Indian practice - the use of peyote - with Christian beliefs of morality and self-respect. The Church prohibits alcohol, requires monogamy and family responsibility, and promotes hard work. By 1923, 14 states had outlawed the use of peyote and in 1940, the Navajo tribal council banned it from the reservation. In1944, the Native American Church of the United States was incorporated. Today, the Church continues to play an important role in the lives of many Indian people
1922 KSL, Salt Lake City's first radio station commences broadcast    
    1924 Indian Citizenship Act passed.
However, voting procedures are delegated to the states, and well past 1924 some states misused this power to continue to deny Native Americans the right to vote. For example, as late as 1962, New Mexico still overtly prohibited Native Americans from voting.
1927 Philo T. Farnsworth invents fully electronic television    
1928 Bryce Canyon National Park is established. 1928 The Meriam Report describe the challenging conditions on Indian Reservations and reforms were enacted.
Indian Education Report
1929 Stock market crashes, sending the nation into the Great Depression, which hits Utah hard and initiates the state's heavy reliance of federal aid
Arches recognized as a National Monument (becomes a National Park in 1978)
1930's During the Great Depression the Ute Business Committee bought land from bankrupted white farmers
    1931 Ration system stopped.
    1933-1934 Taylor Grazing Act Agency withdrew 429,000 acres from the Uncompahgre Reservation and placed in the public domain.
Indian Reorganization Act 1934
Indian Reorganization Act and Indian New Deal (pdf.)
1936 Reva Beck Bosone becomes the first woman judge in Utah 1937-1938 Utah Utes adopted the Wheeler-Howard Reorganization Act of 1934; wrote a Constitution and By-laws; established a Tribal Business Committee.
Ute Constitution

Ute Business Council By Laws
    1939 Utes of Colorado and Utah brought suits against the government payment on 4,404,000 acres of surface and subsurface land, including the territory embraced within the Rangely Oil Field. (Satellite Map)
1942 Topaz (Japanese-American Relocation Camp) operates near Delta. It lasted from 1942-1945.    
1943 Geneva steel plant begins operation in Utah County.    
    1946 The Indian Claim Commission was established, it created a special system for the Indians to sue the federal government
1952 Six-mile Duchesne Tunnel is completed for irrigation.    
1954 Congress creates Colorado River Storage Project. 1957 Termination Policy
Senator Watkins on Termination Policy, May 1957
Secretary of Interior Seaton on Termination Policy, September 1958
1964 Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River is dedicated.
Arizona's Glen Canyon Dam creates Lake Powell the nation's second largest artificial lake.
1957 "Utah disenfranchised Indian voters by claiming that Indians residing on reservations did not qualify as residents of the state, despite the 1881 Supreme Court decision to the contrary. This statute stood until 1957 when, under threat of reversal by Supreme Court, the state legislature abolished it."
1965 Canyonlands National Park is opened.
Golden Spike National Historical Site recognized
    1969 Report: Indian Education: A National Tragedy - A National Challenge (Kennedy Report)
    1969 "Indians of All Tribes" occupation of Alcatraz - A group of young Indians seized the abandoned Alcatraz Island in the San Francisco harbor. They issued a "Proclamation to the Great White Father" in which they stated their claim that Alcatraz was suitable as an Indian Reservation and thus, should be converted into an Indian educational and cultural center. The Indians of All Tribes continued to occupy  Alcatraz (pictures) until June, 1971.  More links: Alcatraz by Sthepanie Rosa (Paper)
1971 Capitol Reef National Monument gains National Park status 1970 Nixon's "Special Message on Indian Affairs" - President Nixon delivered a speech to Congress which denounced past federal policies, formally ended the termination policy, and called for a new era of self-determination for Indian peoples. More links: Self-Determination Act Report 1999
Self-Determination Policy, President Johnson 1968
Self-Determination Policy, President Nixon, 1970
    1972 Trail of Broken Treaties - "Over 500 Indian activists traveled across the United States to Washington, DC where they planned to meet with BIA officials and to deliver a 20-point proposal for revamping the BIA and establishing a government commission to review treaty violations. When guards at the BIA informed the tribal members that Bureau officials would not meet with them and threatened forcible removal from the premises, the activists began a week-long siege of the BIA building. The BIA finally agreed to review the 20 demands and to provide funds to transport the activists back to their home."1
Indian Education Act - This Congressional Act established funding for special bilingual and bicultural programs, culturally relevant teaching materials, and appropriate training and hiring of counselors. It also created an Office of Indian Education in the U.S. Department of Education
    1973 Wounded Knee Occupation - "At the Pine Ridge Reservation of the Oglala Sioux in South Dakota, trouble had been brewing between the Indian activists that supported AIM, and tribal leaders who had the support of the BIA. After a violent confrontation in 1972, tribal chair Richard Wilson condemned AIM and banned it from the reservation. In February 1973, AIM leaders led by Russell Means and about 200 activists who were supported by some Oglala traditional leaders took over the village of Wounded Knee, announced the creation of the Oglala Sioux Nation, declared themselves independent from the United States, and defined their national boundaries as those determined by the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. The siege lasted 71 days, during which time federal marshals, FBI agents, and armored vehicles surrounded the village. AIM members finally agreed to end their occupation under one condition - that the government convene a full investigation into their demands and grievances."1
1977 Utah firing squad makes Gary Gilmore first person executed in the United States for almost ten years. 1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act - "This Congressional Act recognized the obligation of the U.S. to provide for maximum participation by American Indians in Federal services to and programs in Indian communities. It also established a goal to provide education and services to permit Indian children to achieve, and declared a commitment to maintain the Federal government's continuing trust relationship, and responsibility to, individual Indians and tribes."1
1979 New Orleans Jazz move to Salt Lake City and become the Utah Jazz 1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act - "This Congressional Act promised to "protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise" traditional religions, "including but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonial and traditional rites." Although the enactment seemed to recognize the importance of traditional Indian religious practices, it contained no enforcement provisions."1
Santa Clara v. Martinez Supreme Court Decision
US v. Wheeler Supreme Court Decision
1981 In H.L. vs. Matheson, the U.S. Supreme Court approves a Utah parental notification law in regard to abortion. The law requires an abortionist to notify the parents of a minor girl who is still living at home as her parent's dependent when an abortion is scheduled 1980 United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians - U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Sioux Indians were entitled to an award of $17.5 million, plus 5% interest per year since 1877, totaling about $106 million in compensation for the unjust taking of the Black Hills and in direct contravention of the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The Sioux have refused to take the money and sits in a trust fund in Washington, collecting interest
1982 Barney Clark receives the first permanent artificial heart at the University of Utah and it functions for 112 days
Jon M. Huntsman forms Huntsman Chemical Corporation in Salt Lake City
1984 Record snowfall causes spring flooding and State Street becomes a river for weeks while the Great Salt Lake overflows its shores, destroying crops and covering roads and highways    
1985 Jake Garn, is first U.S. Senator to fly in space.    
1990 The population of Salt Lake City is 159,936 1990 Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act - This Congressional Act required all institutions that receive federal funds to inventory their collections of Indian human remains and artifacts, make their lists available to Indian tribes, and return any items requested by the tribes
    1990 Native American Language Act: The congress passed a policy to "preserve, protect, and promote the rights and freedom of Native Americans to use, practice and develop Native American languages."
    1993 Hagen v. Utah (92-6281), 510 U.S. 399 (1994).
Support link: Indian Country Legal Definition
1995 Salt Lake City is announced as the site for the 2002 Winter Olympics.    
1996 Overcrowded highways along the Wasatch Front force the governor and Legislature to address raising taxes to pay for rebuilding of I-15 in northern Utah in time for the 2002 Winter Olympics.
Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument is created by President Clinton.
Utah celebrates its 100's birthday of Statehood. The year is filled with parades, balls, county histories and other activities to celebrate Utah´s entrance into the Union.
1996 National American Indian Heritage Month - President Clinton declared November of each year to be National American Indian Heritage Month
1997 Utah celebrates its Sesequentennial anniversary (150 year) since the Mormon pioneers entered the Salt Lake Valley. This event included a variety of local activities plus the reenactment of the pioneer wagon trail from Winter Quarters to the Salt Lake Valley.
The $1.325 billion bid is awarded to Wasatch Constructions to reconstruct 17 miles of I-15, the main corridor around Salt Lake City.
1998 Sen. Bob Bennett, R-Utah is named chairmen of the new Senate Select Committee on the Year 2000 Technology Problem.    
1999 On August 11 a tornado ripped through downtown Salt Lake City doing over $100 million of dollars in damage. 1999 Shannon County, South Dakota, home of the Oglala Lakota on Pine Ridge Reservation is identified as the poorest place in the country
Self-Determination Act Report 1999
2002 In February the Winter Olympics took place in Utah venues 2002 Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation Maps
2007 Utah Governor, Jon Huntsman, Jr.
Utah State Senate

Utah State House of Representatives
Utah State Supreme Court
Utah State Symbols
Utah Cities and Count Counties Governments
Utah Maps
Utah Geography
2007 Ute Tribe Government Body
Ute History
Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation Maps
After visiting this Timeline webpage, would you please, take 10 minutes of your time and help us to know how we can better serve you and your students by completing the following survey? THANK YOU!

Main Sources:

Main Sources:
Nies, J., Native American History, Ballantine Books; 1st edition (December 3, 1996)
Uintah and Ouray Ute Indian Reservation, The Tribe Public Relations Information Handout, February 13, 2002, pp.4.
Conetah, F.A., 1982, A History of the Northern Ute People, University of Utah Printing Services, SLC, Utah
Utah History to Go - Online Resource, www.historytogo.utah.gov
Olsen, R.G., Humbolt State University professor of history
(1) Legends of America: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/NA-NativeAmericans.html, retrieved on February 27, 2007
Jefferson J., Delaney R., Thompson G., 1972, The Southern Utes, A Tribal History, University of Utah Printing Services, SLC, UT
The American Indian Vote: http://democrats.senate.gov/dpc/dpc-new.cfm?doc_name=sr-108-2-283#foot6, retrieved on March 21, 2007
University of Texas Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection

Disclaimer: Uintah Basin-Teaching American History-Educational Material/Non Commercial

Through this website you are able to link to other websites which are not under the control of the Uintah Basin Teaching American History (UB-TAH.)  We have no control over the nature, content and availability of those sites. The inclusion of any links does not necessarily imply a recommendation or endorse the views expressed within them. Please, let us know if you find inappropriate information.